Bone broth (stock) goes back to, most likely, the first time a pot was used on an open fire. Homemade stock made from the bones and connective tissue of either fish, poultry or beef is an easy, tasty, versatile and economical way to promote healthy connective tissue, strong hair, bones and immune system (read about how type II collagen reverses skin and joint aging). Bone broth (stock) contains minerals in a form the body can easily assimilate—not just calcium but also magnesium, manganese, boron, phosphorus, silica, sulfur and other trace minerals. Bone broth (stock) also contains the broken down material from the cartilage, tendons, bone and skin called collagen. Collagen is the main component of our connective tissue and is the most abundant protein in our body. Bone broth (stock) contains both type I collagen and type II collagen , gelatin (see hydrolyzed collagen and Gelatin), chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronan, aka hyaluronic acid* and glucosamine. *Hyaluronan (HA) is a long chain molecule that consists of alternating units of N-acetylglucosamine and glucuronic acid.
Dr. Ettinger’s Chicken (bone broth) Stock w/Purred Vegetables
1 – whole free-range, organic or pasture-raised, chicken (I also use the gizzards from one chicken. this is optional though. I use everything but the liver – too strong a flavor for my taste.
Option #2 (Most of the time I make option #2. I only use Mary’s Organic Chicken backs, necks, and feet with the addition of a 1-2 inch thick slice of a grass-feed beef marrow bone).
2 – pounds bony/cartilaginous chicken parts, such as necks, backs, breastbones and/or wings.
2-4 – chicken feet (source of hyaluronan [HA]. This is optional, but definitely makes a better stock)
2 – 1″ thick cut slices of pasture-raised beef, marrow, bones
4 – quarts cold filtered water
2 – tablespoons Bragg Apple Cider Vinegar
2 – carrots, coarsely chopped
3 – ribs of celery, cut into 1 inch long pieces
1 – large, white or yellow onion, coarsely chopped≈
1-2 – large leeks, coarsely chopped (white portion only)≈
1 – bulb of garlic, skinned and left whole≈
20 – black peppercorns, whole
4 – bay leaves, whole (can use a little, fresh, thyme and rosemary as well)
1/2 tbsp – sea salt (add additional sea salt, when done, to taste) Note: This is by far the best salt in the world – Seasons 90 Baja Gold Gourmet Sea Salt. This shouldn’t even be called salt, but rather a full-spectrum mineral, salt. This sea salt is the real deal, not the Himalayan pink salt hype that has taken over the US. I feel this salt is superior, in all aspects, to Himalayan Pink Salt, Celtic Sea Salt® or Real Salt®.
*Note: Farm-raised, free-range chickens, like Mary’s Pasture Raised Chicken, make the best stock and yield the most collagen.
≈ These three ingredients are key for the full utilization of the collagen and gelatin in the stock. Why We Should Sulfur-Rich Vegetables – Mark Sisson.
1. If you are using a whole chicken, remove the neck, fat glands and the gizzards from the cavity and cut them into several pieces. Cut the chicken into quarters (leg/thigh, breast/wing and separate the back from the leg/thigh. Remove the skin (Personally, I remove about 3/4’s of the skin).
2. In a large (6 quart or larger) stainless steel pot (I use a 6-quart pressure cooker – best option), place all of the vegetables on the bottom and add the chicken or chicken pieces on top. Now add the water, vinegar, and spices.
3. Bring water to a boil, and remove scum that rises to the top* (if using a pressure cooker, just place the lid on and lock). Reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 6 to 8 hours. The longer you cook the stock, the richer and more flavorful it will be.
If using a pressure cooker: once the vent starts to blow steam, reduce heat just enough to keep steam, gently, releasing from the pressure valve. Cook for 90 minutes. let the pressure reduce naturally, once you take it off of the heat, about an additional 30 minutes).
*Skimming is for aesthetic purposes only.
The scum is a denatured protein, mostly comprising the same proteins that make up egg whites. It is harmless and flavorless, but visually unappealing. Eventually, the foam will break up into microscopic particles and disperse into your stock, leaving it grayish and cloudy. The more vigorously your stock bubbles, the faster this process will occur.
4. Remove the whole chicken or pieces with a slotted spoon into a separate bowl. Let cool and remove chicken meat from the carcass, making sure to carefully separate out all of the non-meat parts. Reserve chicken for other uses, such as chicken salads, enchiladas, sandwiches…. Remove the vegetables and place into a blender (see step 5). Strain the stock to remove any bones or solids.
4a. (optional but worth it – only if using a whole, cut-up, chicken). Place all parts back into the pot or pressure cooker. Bring back to a boil and cook for an additional 2 hours. If using a pressure cooker this does not need to be done. Strain the stock to remove all bones and solids.
5. Remove the vegetables and place into a blender. Puree vegetables until liquefied. Pour the pureed vegetables back into the strained stock. Reserve the stock, in covered containers, in your refrigerator or freezer. Makes 1 gallon of stock.
6. Serve (the version below has some of the shredded chicken added back in. My standard bone broth contains only the pureed vegetables, no chicken).